Settlement in New Hampshire

Founded in 1623, just three years after the Pilgrims landed at Plymouth, New Hampshire was governed by Massachusetts from 1698 until 1741 when it returned to its royal provincial status with a governor of its own. This New Hampshire was a divided society. The Merrimack Valley and beyond was settled by farmers both from Massachusetts, including Bedels, Wiswalls, Clarks and Haynes, and from Connecticut and by Scotch-Irish farmers from Northern Ireland. At the same time the coast was dominated by towns and villages, mills and trade. Prosperous merchants controlled capital and influenced government. In addition, the north south direction of the river valleys made communication with Boston more natural than with Portsmouth. During the Revolution, inland farmers became so disenchanted with provincial leaders on the coast that they attempted to secede. Only by agreeing to hold several legislative sessions in the Merrimack Valley in Concord, did New Hampshire keep itself from breaking apart. This same tension led to Shay's Rebellion in Massachussets after the Revolution.

Settlement in Grafton County in central New Hampshire

During the pre-Revolutionary period a number of ancestral families moved west into New Hampshire. In the 1760s the Bedels and Hutchins were among the earliest proprietors of Haverhill, NH. Moody Bedel (82), son of Timothy Bedel, married Joseph Hutchin's daughter Ruth (83) in 1783. They lived and raised their family in Haverhill, NH.

Joseph Haynes, jr. (160) held land in Concord NH as early as 1797, and probably earlier. He was born in Mass. but the children of his first marriage were born in various locations in Grafton Co., NH between 1763 and 1771.

His son John Haynes (80) was an innkeeper in Concord in 1802 when he was 39. Newspaper references show he served as a state senator in 1804, and was on the ballot in 1807. On 22 Oct. 1808 we find a report in the Portsmouth Oracle that "At the late session of the Superior Court of Judicature in the county of Grafton, John Haynes, Esq. late a member of the New Hampshire Legislature, was convicted of dealing in counterfeit money, and sentenced to pay three hundred dollars fine, and suffer one year's imprisonment." He was 45.

After this incident, the spelling of the family name changes to Haines. The 1810 census lists John Haines in Concord. In 1813 John Haines is reported as arriving in the newly settled Indian Stream, NH from Lisbon (located halfway from Concord to Indian Stream).

Settlement in Coos County in northern New Hampshire

The far north of New Hampshire was settled starting after 1800. Pittsburg, which extends for 350 square miles is all of New Hampshire north of the 45th parallel excluding Clarksville, and was originally called the "Indian Stream Territory." It wasn't until 1789 that men from New England began to visit the area returning home to sing the praises of the area's wildlife, forests, streams and meadows.

In 1796 a small group of men obtained a deed to the area from King Philip, sachem of the Coos indians, registering it in Grafton County and claimed possession of this territory. They organized and opened their lands to settlement, offering immigrants lots of 100 acres in return for performing "settler's duty," that is clearing and settling the land and contributing labor toward common development of roads and other public projects for a certain number of years. The earliest permanent settlement cited is that of Ebenezer Fletcher in 1811. John Haines (80) arrived in 1813 from Lisbon. (Two of his sons, Clark J. Haines (40) and John L. Haines are listed as 'arriving' in 1815 and 1820, but as they each reached 16 in those years it seems more likely they left their father's household and claimed or bought their own land rather that actually arriving.) It appears John Haines was leaving behind the disgrace of his conviction and prison sentence.

"Gen." Moody Bedel (82) moved north to Indian Stream in about 1820 when he was about 55 years old, about the time his daughter married Clark J. Haines (40) there. (There is documentary evidence he served as a colonel in the War of 1812.) By 1830 he had relocated back south to Bath, not far from Lisbon.

Some settlers came to the far north directly from Massachussets. Joseph Wiswall (84) came to the College Grant just south of Indian Stream from Newton, Mass. sometime between 1810 and 1820. He was brother-in-law of Benjamin Clark, for whom Clarksville was named, and served as his agent for the sale of land in this area. He also had a store in Stewartstown by 1842. His father-in-law Norman Clark (170) moved into his household in 1826 at the age of 82 from Princeton, Mass. and lived in Clarksville for the next 15 years.

Although these settlers felt secure in their titles to these lands, in fact the legal basis for this settlement was very insecure. The area north of the 45th was not included in the Royal Patent granted by Charles II establishing the province of New Hampshire; during the period when New Hampshire was part of Massachussets, this area was not considered a part of the New Hampshire; and being south of the Highlands it was also outside the jurisdiction of southern Canada. To further complicate matters, a second land speculation company was also making often overlapping land grants. This ambiguity led not only to problems for the claims of the settlers, but culminated in the formation of the "Indian Stream Republic."

The state ignored this area until about 1820. It was not included in the 1820 U.S. census leading to the absence of the Haines and Bedel households from census records that year. In this year complaints were filed with the attorney general of New Hampshire against "certain settlers said to be encroaching upon the public domain," north of 45th parallel, and suits were subsequently brought to eject them from their holdings. By 1824 the population of this area had only reached 285, but the land interests were strong enough to precipitate the appointment of a legislative committee to investigate the situation. The three members of the committee traveled to Indian Stream, assessing its resources and investigating its history and status and reported that "in their opinion no decisive measures can be recommended ... until the question of the extent of the jurisdiction of the state is settled, and that this must depend upon the determination of the boundary lines" between the United States and the Province of Canada. They conclude "that the tenants are entitled, if not to be fully quieted in their possession of land, at least to exemption from prosecution."

According to The History of Coös County, New Hampshire by George Drew Merrill (1888) there then followed another 10 years of benign neglect by the state. The citizens finally felt a need for more government, leading to the establishment of the Indian Stream Republic. Other more recent and plausible accounts ("New Hampshire" by Christina Coruth; Republic of Indian Stream, Wikipedia) report that, on the contrary, the settlers were caught between Canada and the U.S., with both powers making demands on them through conscription and taxation.

On July 9, 1832, citizens of the area declared the Indian Stream Republic independent of both nations. They adopted a constitution, which included a preamble and bill of rights, setting up a government based on direct democracy that provided for courts, stamps, and a militia. John Haines (80) served on a committee of 3 that drafted a code of laws. Among the elected officials were John Haines, one of 5 members of the Supreme Council, the administrative body, and Clark J. Haines (40), Justice of the Peace.

Both the U.S. and Canada pursued their claims to the area and the local population split into factions based on which country they felt more allegiance to. In 1835 the situation came to a head with the arrest by Canadian and New Hampshire authorities of leaders of the opposing factions. Arrests and rescues led to gunfire and to the occupation of the Indian Spring Republic by the New Hampshire Militia at the order of the NH governor. In January 1836 Canada quit their claim to the territory and in May the Republic was dissolved when its citizens accepted New Hampshire's authority. The Indian Stream Republic was incorporated into the town of Pittsburg in 1840, encompassing 300,000 acres. The boundary line was officially set and the land recognized as belonging to New Hampshire with the signing of the Webster-Ashburton Treaty in 1842.

In addition to the disruptions of this conflict, 1836 was a cold year with frost in every month, so that crops did not ripen and provisions ran short. Some who had supported Canada moved north, others fled south. The 1840 census listed 315 inhabitants of the area, still listed as Indian Spring. This was only an increase of 14 from the 1830 count of 301. The town elections of 1841 and 1842 had 53 and 63 voters respectively. (However, it should be noted that even in 2004, population density stood at 3.1 persons per square MILE with a population of only 863.)

Considering the size of the community, it is not surprising that John Haines and his sons and grandsons appear regularly among those elected to civic office. John Haines' final civic service was to serve at the Coos County Convention in 1842.

A church building was not built in Pittsburg until 1875, however Congregational, Methodist and Free Will Baptist churches were organized starting in 1822. The Haynes were among the Free Will Baptists. (Dorothy Jewett Haynes, 81, was among the earliest, helping to form a prayer group in the earliest days of the settlement.) In 1828 Center school-house was built and served as school, church, townhall and courthouse for many years.

Genealogical Details

(10)John Henry Haynes was born on 22 Aug 1873 in Pittsburg, Coos Co., NH. He died on 28 Oct 1959 in Lancaster, Coos Co., NH. He was buried on 30 Oct 1959 in Lancaster, NH.

His parents were:

(20)Moody Bedell Haynes was born on 18 Oct 1829 in Stewartsville, Coos Co., NH. He died on 18 Jun 1881 in Pittsburg, Coos Co., NH. The cause of death was TB. He was buried after 18 Jun 1881 in Hollow Cemetery, Pittsburg, NH. He married Mary Morton Wiswall on 11 Jan 1855 in Pittsburg, Coos Co., NH.

(21)Mary Morton Wiswall was born on 26 Nov 1833 in Easton, Bristol Co., MA. She died on 8 Jan 1882 in Pittsburg, Coos Co., NH. The cause of death was TB. She was buried in Hollow Cemetery, Pittsburg, NH. Mary resided in 1880 in Pittsburg, Coos, New Hampshire.

His grand-parents were:

(40)Clark John Haines was born on 5 May 1799 in Lisbon Twp., Grafton Co., NH. He died before 1860 in prb. Pittsburg, Coos, NH. He married Adeline Bedell about 1820 in Pittsburg Co., Coos, NH.

(41)Adeline Bedell was born on 21 Sep 1800 in Haverhill, Grafton Co., NH. She died on 15 Oct 1856 in Pittsburg, Coos, NH, prb.

(42)Benjamin Clark Wiswall was born on 10 Jun 1808 in Newton, Middlesex Co., MA. He died after 1880 in Wisconsin. He was raised in Indian Stream, but returned as an adult to Newton, MA where he married Susan Sawyer on 22 May 1831. They returned to NH in 1838 and resided in Clarksville, Coos Co., NH. He was employed as a farmer. He resided in 1880 in Praire De Sac, Sauk, WI, in his son's household.

(43)Susan Sawyer was born 1 on 4 Apr 1808 in Foxborough, Norfolk Co., MA. She died 2 in 1878 in Clarksville, Coos Co., NH.

His great grand-parents were:

(80)John Clark Haynes was born on 15 Apr 1763 in Stillwater, Grafton Co., NH. He died on 12 Sep 1854 in Pittsburg, Coos Co., NH. He was buried in 1854 in Hollow Cemetery, Pittsburg, Coos Co., NH. He married Dorothy Jewett about 1793.

(81)Dorothy Jewett was born on 27 Jan 1776 in Stamsted, Quebec, Canada. She died on 17 Dec 1845 in Pittsburg, Coos Co., NH. She was buried in 1845 in Hollow Cemetery, Pittsburg, Coos Co., NH. She immigrated about 1793 to upon marriage?.

(82)Moody Bedel was born on 12 May 1764 in Salem, Essex Co., MA. He died on 13 Jan 1841 in prb. Haverhill, Grafton Co., NH. He married Ruth Hutchins on 27 Nov 1783 in Haverhill, Essex Co., MA. Moody was born before 1785. He resided in 1800 in Haverhill, Grafton Co., NH.

(83) Ruth Hutchins was born on 6 Feb 1764 in Haverhill, Essex Co., MA. She died on 12 Mar 1807 in Haverhill, Grafton Co., NH.

(84)Joseph P. Wiswall was born on 15 Sep 1786 in Newton, Middlesex Co., MA. He died on 24 Feb 1856 in Clarksville, Coos, NH. He married Sarah H. Clark on 13 Aug 1807 in Newton, Middlesex Co., MA. Joseph was born on 2 Dec 1786 (attributed Birth, perhaps christening). He migrated in 1810/1820 to NH.

(85)Sarah H. Clark was born on 27 Apr 1776 in Princeton, Worcester, MA. She died on 13 Sep 1861 in Clarksville, Coos, NH.

(86)Phillips Sawyer was born about 1771 in Mansfield, Bristol, MA?. He died on 10 Feb 1837 in Foxborough, Norfolk Co., MA. He married Keziah Billings on 16 Sep 1800 in Mansfield, Mass.

(87)Keziah Billings was born on 15 Oct 1778 in Foxborough, Norfolk Co., MA. She died on 18 May 1808 in Foxborough, Norfolk Co., MA. She was buried in Rock Hill Cemetery.

Among his great great grand-parents were:

(160)Joseph Haynes was born on 25 Mar 1743 in Haverhill, Essex Co., MA. He died on 10 Jun 1810 in Stillwater, Ulster Co., NY. He married Anna Heath on 4 Feb 1762 in Salem, Rockingham Co., NH. Their children were born at various locations in Grafton Co., NH.

(161)Anna Heath was born about 1750 in Haverhill, Essex Co., MA. She died before 1775 in NH.

(164)Col. Timothy Bedel was born on 21 Jul 1724 in Amesbury, Essex Co., MA. He died in Feb 1787 in Haverhill, Grafton Co., NH. He married Elizabeth Merrill before 1760 prob. in Haverhill, Essex Co., MA. Timothy resided in 1760/1763 in Salem, MA. They were among the first settlers of Haverhill, NH in 1864.

(165)Elizabeth Merrill was born about 1740 in Prb. Haverhill, Essex Co., MA. She died on 31 Aug 1779.

(166)Joseph Hutchins was born 2 on 31 May 1743 in Haverhill, Essex Co., MA. He died on 12 Nov 1814 in Middlesex Co., Washington Co., VT. He married Martha Corliss on 9 Jun 1763 in Haverhill, Essex Co., MA. They moved in 1764 or 1765 to Haverhill, Grafton Co., NH. He moved in 1792 or 1793 to VT.

(167)Martha Corliss was born on 28 Jun 1745 in Haverhill, Essex Co., MA. She died on 27 Sep 1790 in Haverhill, Grafton Co., NH.

(170)Capt. Norman Clark was born on 12 Dec 1743 in Newton, Middlesex Co., MA. He died on 25 May 1842 in Clarksville, Coos Co., NH. He married Sarah Hammond on 21 Dec 1769 in Newton, Middlesex Co., MA. He moved on 31 Jul 1826 to Clarksville, Coos Co., NH (named after son).

(172) Daniel Sawyer was born on 5 Mar 1744/1745 in Newbury, Essex Co., MA. He died on 1 Mar 1811 in New Hampton,Belknap Co, NH. He married Martha [--?--] about 1765.

(173) Martha [--?--] was born about 1745. She died on 26 Jan 1833 in NH.

© 2009 Footie Lund