Ancestors Who Arrived before 1630
The Mayflower arrived at Plymouth in November 1620. These 100 settlers included Separatist Puritans from England and members of the Separatist congregation at Leiden, Holland and their leaders, who had initiated the venture. During the first terrible winter of 1620-21 half of the colonists died. Settlers continued to arrive sporatically until "Winthrop's Fleet" brought over 1,000 settlers in 1630. On the eve of this influx, the population of all of New England stood at about 500, and there were only 2,000-3,000 English settlers in all of the Americas.
Richard Norman came to Cape Ann employed by the Dorchester Company in 1624, apparently not as a permanent settler, but as part of a fishing fleet. (By this time, Plymouth Colony's population was only about 180 persons and 32 houses had been built.) This settlement was abandoned when the settlers decided it was too remote from the fishing grounds. In 1626 Richard moved to Naumkeag with the others remaining under Richard Conant. He and his son John were two of the few left when Capt. John Endicott arrived in 1628, boosting the settlement to about 60 persons. 200 more residents arrived the next year with the royal charter. Norman, or "old Goodman Norman," was one of the "old planters" of Salem (as Namkeag was renamed), those that were residents before the Endicott migration. His wife and younger children joined him within the next few years.
When Richard Jr. was fined for "slighting ordinances and carrying a burden on Lord's day," Richard Sr. answered for him in court in February 1642/3. It has been observed that "Norman was probably not of the Puritan persuasion" though his wife and daughter-in-law were recorded as members of the Salem church in 1637.
Richard Norman was a carpenter (probably a shipwright). He was in fishing and/or ship building with his son John in Salem. His younger son, and the Haynes ancestor, Richard Jr. was also a fisherman. Testimony Richard Jr. made in March 1673/4 when he was about 50 years old shows the distances the fisherman traveled as well as being evidence for his birthdate. He states "... and further that I have been in Maryland in Virginia in West St. Mary's and likewise in some part of York River in both which places there was land commonly said to be and called by the name the said Thomas Weston his land or plantation."
Richard Norman moved to Marblehead by 1650. He already owned land in the area which had been part of Salem until 1649. As he was in his mid-60's at this time and his wife had already died, he probably relocated to live there with one of his sons.
INGERSOLL and LANGLEY: 1629
A letter of instruction from the Massachusetts Bay Company written to John Endicott in Salem on May 28, 1629 stated "There is also one Richard Haward and Richard Inkersall, both Bedfordshire men, hired for the Company with their families, who we pray you may be well accommodated, not doubting but they will well and orderly demean themselves." Richard Ingersoll and his wife Agnes (Langley), with their children, including 1 year old daughter Sarah (who married William Haynes), arrived in Massachusetts on June 29, 1629 aboard the "Mayflower" (not the same ship as in 1620). Various land grants to Richard are of non-freeman portions, so he was not a member of the church. He was the ferryman, and he and his sons cooperatively farmed. Various legal documents show they shared ownership of large equipment and rented land together.
Ancestors Who Arrived between 1630 and 1640
"Winthrop's Fleet" landed in Salem, Massachusetts in 1630, with the first mass influx of Puritans from England. They found Salem severely weakened. This group of a 700 settlers led by John Winthrop and about 300 others arrived in this one summer and fall. Two hundred died that winter and two hundred more returned to England the following spring. However in the next ten years the "Great Migration" continued. These 20,000 Puritan immigrants built the Massachusetts Bay Colony. At first they landed at Salem, and then spread into small settlements all within a 30-50 mile radius of Boston. Haynes' ancestors are more often found up the coast from Boston in communities such as Haverhill, Newbury, and Salisbury.
Ancestors who came over in 1630 included:
- Simon and Anne (Dudley) Bradstreet
- Griffin and Alice Crafts
- Thomas and Dorothy (Yorke) Dudley
- Robert and Joan (Cutter) Hale
- Thomas and Jane Moulton
- Robert and Mary Pond; with sons Samuel and Robert
- Richard and Margaret Wright; with daughter Abigail
- Roger Clapp
- Thomas and Elizabeth (Chard) Ford; with daughter Joan
In 1630 reinforcements arrived for the Plymouth Colony as well. Massachusetts settlers in both colonies were very homogeneous, coming to America in pursuit of the New Jerusalem, hoping to build communities that would support their religious lives.
The ancestors who arrived in New Amsterdam at the same time were a much more mixed bag.
Hans Kierstedt was a Prussian immigrant who arrived in 1638 and was the first permanent surgeon of New Amsterdam. He married Sara Jans Roelofs whose parents arrived in 1630 from Norway. Their Manhattan farm would eventually provide a large part of the endowment of Columbia University.
On the other hand, it is reported of Laurens Duyts, a farmer, and his wife Ytie Jansen, Danish immigrants arriving in 1639, that
Duyts's moral life does not deserve mention. But in order to show how Laurens "Big Shoe" trampled upon the laws of decency and how such a lawbreaker was punished, we relate that Laurens Duyts of Holstein received a most severe sentence from Stuyvesant on November 25, 1658. For selling his wife, Ytie Jansen, and forcing her to live in adultery with another man and for living himself also in adultery, he was to have a "rope tied around his neck, and then to be severely flogged, to have his right ear cut off, and to be banished for fifty years."
Danish Immigrants in NY 1630-1674, p.194
He died 7 years later in Bergen, New Jersey.
These New York Danes, Norwegians, English and Dutch were ancestors of Sarah Merinda Wilson, rather than her husband John Henry Haynes. They moved to Canada between 1776 and 1783, leading one to suspect their political inclinations.
Ancestors Who Arrived between 1640 and 1700
Within a few short years, the industrious and zealous puritan pioneers had established a successful and thriving colony in the New World. And, then, by 1640 The Great Migration was over. The 20,000-26,000 immigrants who arrived from 1630 to 1640 formed the base of a population which doubled every 28 years; however, they were joined by few new immigrants until the time of the American Revolution. Charles I summoned Parliament in 1640 for the first time in 11 years. Soon England was on the verge of civil war. By 1650, Oliver Cromwell had executed King Charles. The English Revolution lasted until the Restoration in 1660. As a result of these events, and the financial depression they caused, immigration from England to the colony slowed to a trickle after 1640.
We see this pattern reflected in the arrival dates of Haynes ancestors. There are 262 17th century immigrants for whom we have dates of arrival. 10 were residents of Dutch New Amsterdam. Of those coming to New England we see the following distribution. Some tallied in the later decades may have arrived earlier. In some cases records of arrival haven't been preserved (or researchers haven't found them), and maiden names were not always preserved for women. I have recorded them as having arrived by the date of the wedding, although many certainly immigrated with their parents years or decades earlier, or may even have been born in New England.